Learning Objectives of Power System Protection Training

• Fault Calculations and Sequence Components
• Over Current and Earth Fault Protection
• Voltage and Current Transformers
• Distance Protection : Fundamental Considerations
• Protection Signalling
• High Impedance Differential Protection
• Transformer Protection
• Low Impedance Busbar Differential Protection
• Feeder Differential Protection
• Auto Reclosing Concepts
• Protection of Capacitor Banks
• This training is specifically designed to provide an in-depth understanding of the fundamental principles of protection design.


This course is specifically designed to meet the learning requirements of those who presently have a basic knowledge of protection principles, while also providing valuable insights to those who are more experienced in the area of protection design.

This training will assist both those whose day-to-day work involves them in the application of protection design, coordination and relay setting, and also those in less directly associated areas of electricity system design.

This training has been prepared specifically to meet the requirements of:

• Planning Engineers, to identify the difficulties in providing protection for various power system configurations under review
• Maintenance Engineers, to ensure that system protection is not compromised as plant is removed from service during maintenance
• Circuitry Design Engineers, to ensure that protective schemes are implemented in a manner to provide optimum performance
• Commissioning Engineers, to ensure the actual field installation of the protection scheme and associated relay settings meets the design requirements.
• Field Technicians, to understand the importance of their role in installing, testing and maintaining effective, reliable, dependable and secure protection systems.
• Protection Design Engineers, to identify protection implications and to ensure design, coordination and relay setting principles provide the necessary levels of speed, security, dependability and safety.

Know About Your Trainer

The trainer is a certified Project Management Professional from PMI United States, Chartered Engineer from Engineering Council, UK. He has completed his MBA from Institute of Business Administration, Karachi, Master’s in Electrical Engineering and Bachelors in Electrical Engineering from N.E.D University of Engineering and Technology. He has over 14 years’ experience of managing Projects and Maintenance in Utility and Power Generation sector. He has successfully managed numerous projects worth millions USD. He is currently working as a Construction Manager in 500 M USD Project in Pakistan and looking after its Construction and Commissioning.
He has also been associated with the academia and has been delivering trainings to industry professional and students on various topics including Electrical Safety, Maintenance of Electrical Assets, Power Plant Maintenance management and Project Management.

COURSE OUTLINE

  • DAY ONE

  • Fundamental Principles of Power System Protection

  • • Dependability and Security • Speed of Protection
    • Protection Zones & Overlap • The “ART” of Protection
    • Unit Protection Principles
    • Non-Unit Protection Principles
    • Redundancy and Duplication of protection
    • Duplicate Main Protection
    • Main and Local Back-up Protection
    • Main and Remote Back-up Protection
    • CB Fail Protection
    • Blind Spot Protection
    •Trip Circuit Monitoring

  • Fault Studies and Sequence Components

  • • Introduction to Fault Analysis
    • Per Unit Method
    • Classical Fault Study

  • Sequence Components

  • • Three Phase faults
    • Phase – Phase Faults
    • Single Phase Faults
    • Resistive Earth Faults
    • Transformers and Sequence Networks

  • Over Current & Earth Fault Protection

  • • Discrimination by Time
    • Discrimination by Current
    • Discrimination by Time & Current
    • Relay Curves to IEC 60255
    • Electro Mechanical Relays
    • Grading Curve Principles
    • Instantaneous Elements
    • Grading of Parallel Elements
    • Current Pick-up Setting Principles
    • Earth Fault Protection
    • Time Multiplier Setting Principles
    • Fuses and Fuse Contactors
    • Sequential Operation of Over Current Relays
    • Directional Over Current Principles
    • Ring Mains System Grading Principles
    • Directional Earth Fault Protection Principles
    • Sensitive Earth Fault Protection Principles

  • Instrument Transformers to IEC 60055

  • • Voltage Transformer Specification
    Magnetic VTs Capacitor VTs VT Transient Performance • P Class Current Transformer Specification
    • PX Class Current Transformer Specification
    • Transient Performance of CTs
    Fault Currents and DC Offset
    CT Performance and Flux Requirements with DC Offset : (1 + X/R)
    • Requirements
    Minimising CT Specification to below the (1 + X/R) Requirement

  • Global Industries Intelligence training courses are thoroughly researched and structured to provide intense practical training applicable to your organization.

  • • Combinations of educational presentations, productive in-session assignments and participant collaboration to provide actionable learning
    • Strictly limited numbers to allow for greater interaction and one-on-one interaction with the trainer
    • Detailed pre-course questionnaires to allow you to tailor the program to address your individual concerns
    • Hard and soft copies of presentation materials and tools


  • Pre-course questionnaire

  • To ensure that you gain maximum benefit from the event, a detailed questionnaire will be sent to you to establish some of you background information and exactly which of the topics covered in the training are of major importance to you and major issues related to those topics. The course trainer will analyse the completed forms. As a result, we ensure the course is delivered at an appropriate level and that relevant issues will be addressed. The comprehensive course material will enable you to digest the subject matter in your own time.

  • Global Industries Intelligence would like to thank everyone who has helped with the research and organizing of this event, particularly the trainer, who has kindly committed and supported the event.

  • DAY TWO

  • Introduction to Distance Protection

  • • Simple Amplitude Comparators
    • Impedance Circle Comparators
    • Polarising for Close-In Faults
    • Primary and Secondary Impedances
    • Zones of Protection – Circles and Qualrilaterals
    • Three Phase Load Limit Performance
    • Comparator Configurations for 3 Phase and Phase-Phase Faults
    • Comparator Configurations for Earth Faults
    • Distance Zones • Non-Switched Relays
    • Zone Switched Relays • Fully Switched Relays
    • Time and Reach Coordination • Mho Circle Comparators


  • Protection Signalling

  • • Permissive Under Reaching (PUTT)
    Weak Remote End Feed
    • Permissive Over Reaching (POTT)
    POTT Echo Logic POTT Weak Infeed Logic
    POTT Current Reversal Logic
    • Distance Acceleration • Blocking Intertripping
    • DEF schemes
    DDEF Blocking and POTT Schemes
    • Direct Intertripping • Series Intertripping
    • PLC systems • PLC & Permissive Unblocking
    • Integration of Back-Up Signalling Requirements

  • Advanced Applications of Distance Protection

  • •Mutual Coupling • Parallel Feeders and Remote Back-up
    • Bridged Feeders• Fault Resistance
    • VT Supervision • Polarising for Close-in Faults
    • SOTF Logic • Healthy Phase Load Limits
    • Power Swing Blocking
    • Coordination with Over Current Relays
    •Teed Feeders
    DIT, PUTT, POTT and Blocking Applications

  • High Impedance Differential Protection

  • •HZ Differential Protection Principles •Setting Principles for Through Fault Stability Determination of Setting Voltage •CT Requirements •Ratio Correction CT Implications •Current Operated Schemes and Stabilising Resistors •Limiting Secondary System Voltages to Safe Levels •Primary Operating Current and Application of Shunt Resistors •Bus Zone Check Schemes and Implications of Switching of Plant •CT Supervision Requirements •Bus Zone Back-Up Requirements •Application of High Impedance Differential Protection Schemes to other Galvanically Connected Plant

  • Instrument Transformers to IEC 60055

  • •HZ Differential Protection Principles
    •Setting Principles for Through Fault Stability
    Determination of Setting Voltage
    •CT Requirements •Ratio Correction CT Implications
    •Current Operated Schemes and Stabilising Resistors
    •Limiting Secondary System Voltages to Safe Levels
    •Primary Operating Current and Application of Shunt Resistors
    •Bus Zone Check Schemes and Implications of Switching of Plant
    •CT Supervision Requirements
    •Bus Zone Back-Up Requirements
    •Application of High Impedance Differential Protection Schemes to other Galvanically Connected Plant

  • Transformer Protection

  • •Buchholz and Pressure Relief Devices
    •Bias Differential Basic Principles
    • Stability under Magnetising Inrush Conditions
    • Stability under Over Excitation Conditions
    • Stability with Transformer Phase Shifts
    • Stability under through earth Fault Conditions
    • Transformers and Sequence Components
    • Determination of Delta CT Connection
    • Delta / Star Transformer Example
    • Star / Star / Delta Tertiary Transformer Example
    • Determination of CT Ratios
    • Micro Processor Relay Implications
    • Un-Restrained Instantaneous Elements
    • Winding Neutral End Faults
    • Restricted Earth • Fault Protection
    •Transformer Delta Windings with Earthed Corner
    •Neutral Displacement Protection
    • Zig Zag Earthing Transformers
    • Principles •Over Current Protection
    • Earth Fault Protection •Integration with Biased Differential Protection

  • Low Impedance Busbar Differential Protection

  • • Central and Bay Unit Designs
    • Features to Accommodate Poor Quality CTs
    • Multiple Zone Applications
    • Allowance for Dynamic Switching of Plant
    • Voltage and Check Zone Interlocking
    • CB Fail and CB Fail Bus Trip Facilities
    • Blind Spot Fault Facilities • Mulit Functionality


  • Feeder Differential Protection

  • • Pilot Wire Protection
    Circulating Current Schemes Opposed Voltage Schemes
    Pilot Wire Supervision Pilot Isolation
    Unstabilising and Intertripping
    Summation Transformer Principles


  • Digital Current Differential Protection

  • Data Synchronisation
    Alpha Plane Systems
    2, 3 and Multi Ended Systems
    Intertripping Schemes
    Back-Up Distance Relay Functionality

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